An abrupt speaker, he scorned rhetoric yet was capable of wit. Basil II aimed solely at the extension and consolidation of imperial authority at home and abroad. Wild Success and Deplorable Failure: Th… With Basil having no children, the title of emperor resorted back to his brother Constantine, who ruled as Constantine VIII from 1025 to 1028 CE, and his daughters Zoe and Theodora. In 1014 CE Basil finally won a great and decisive victory against the Bulgars at, appropriately enough, another mountain pass, this time at Kleidion in the Belasica Mountains. Herpo the Foul was the first to breed a Basilisk; he accomplished this by hatching a chicken egg beneath a toad which resulted in the creature known as a Basilisk.3 Basilisk breeding was banned in Medieval times. BASIL II. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. I would assume that he would have superior military training, with a father like Basil II. Death. After their father’s death in 963, the government was effectively undertaken by the senior military emperors, first by Nicephorus II Phocas, their stepfather, and then by John I Tzimisces. He was the step-son of Caesar Augustus.. Tiberius was one of Ancient Rome's greatest generals, whose campaigns protected the northern frontier. His final resting place carried the following inscription: From the day that the King of Heaven called upon me to become the Emperor, the great overlord of the world, no one saw my spear lie idle. He did not at first display the full extent of his energy. and Theophano, great-great-grandson of Basil I., was born about 958 and crowned on the 22nd of April 960. The new tax plan, known as the allelengyon, met with robust opposition, was not successful and was abandoned by Romanos III in 1028 CE. Basil II (or basil Phorphyrogenitus or basil the Younger reigned from 976 to 1025. Alexander and Basil II probably weren't biologically related -- Alexander was a genuine son of Basil I, but Basil II's great grandfather, Leo the Wise, was probably a biological son of Michael III. What title did Ivan III use? What happened when World War II started? The Tsardom of Russia was preceded by the Grand Principality of Moscow, and was succeeded by the Russian Empire .The first tsar of Russia was Ivan IV (commonly known in English as Ivan the Terrible, from the Russian Ivan Grozny ), the last Grand Prince of Moscow, and the … Basil II then had to foil another coup, this time involving his disloyal and corrupt chamberlain, which attempted to make Bardas Phokas, an aristocratic clan leader, emperor. By aggression and by diplomacy he secured land from Georgia and from Armenia, with the promise of more to come on the death of the Armenian ruler. Basil’s main focus, though, was the west and revenge on the Bulgars. Both schemes failed, but he was more successful in southern Italy, where order was restored, and at his death preparations were being made for the reconquest of Sicily. After their father's death (963) he and his younger brother Constantine were Mark is a history writer based in Italy. Born 957. His territories stretched even into Mesopotamia and were consolidated by dividing the conquered regions into new provinces of the empire. The adoption of Christianity and its promotion by St Vladimir, as he would become, was a momentous action of long-lasting consequence for the Russian peoples. Well-known for his appetite, he became a close ally of Matthias and later relocated to Redwall Abbey.. Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, celebrate 73 (!!) Cardinal Basil Hume, Archbishop of Westminster since February, 1976, who has died aged 76, was the first Benedictine monk to hold this post since the restoration of … Basil Rathbone … 574-582 C.E. There is a signficant number of Emperors who died in mysterious circumstances or whos fate is not known, so its entirely possible this list is not complete or totally accurate. Emeritus Professor of History, Royal Holloway College, University of London. Indeed the biological father of Leo VI the Wise (Basil IIs great-grandfather) was possibly not Basil I, but Michael III. He attempted to establish a Greek pope in Rome and to unite in marriage the German (though by birth half Byzantine) ruler Otto III with Basil II’s favourite niece, Zoe. He was considered emperor-co-ruler since childhood, but actually gained the throne at the age of 17 or 18 years after the death of John I Tzimiskes (January 976). Basil the Elder, father of St. Its keynote was the strengthening of imperial authority by striking at his overpowerful subjects, particularly the military families who ruled like princes in Asia Minor. Basil was the son of Emperor Romanos II and Empress Theophano, whose maternal family was of Laconian Greek origin from the Peloponnesian region of Laconia, possibly from the city of Sparta. Last modified November 09, 2017. Basil II (aka Basilius II) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 976 to 1025 CE. I often wondered why Basil did'nt do more to bring about a stronger succession. For most of them life was gay and colourful, and if the city’s defensive fortifications were at some points in disrepair they had no cause to dread attacks. During World War I, he served in the British Army (like his future co-star, Basil Rathbone) where he received a serious leg wound and was for some time confined to a wheelchair. Basil II in Triumphby Unknown Artist (Public Domain). Actor Basil Rathbone, whose roles ranged from Shakespeare to Sherlock Holmes, died of a heart attack Friday in New York. Born on Jan. 22, 1440, in Moscow, Ivan was the oldest son of Basil II. A bachelor, Basil left the throne to his younger brother, Constantine VIII, during whose reign (1025-1028) began the rapid erosion of the strength Basil had built up. When he was only five years old his father died, so first Nikephoros II, and then the usurper John I, took the throne before he finally came to power in 976 AD. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). By allying with the Phokas family (John I had murdered Nikephoros II Phokas), Skleros was defeated and forced into exile. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Basil_II/. This colossus of Byzantine history is the subject of a biography in the Chronographia of the 11th-century CE Byzantine historian Michael Psellos. According to the historical accounts, when Samuel saw the blinded men approaching, he had a stroke or similar ailment and died two days later (6 October 914). Cite This Work Basil Manly Parks II, named for his father’s eldest brother, Colonel Basil Manly Parks, was born at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, DC, on 28 December 1939. How many years did it take the Ottomans to completely breach through the walls of Constantinople? Italy, too, was reorganised, and a campaign was prepared to once more face the Arabs, this time in their last stronghold in the West, Sicily. It seemed that Basil and the Abbasids’ intervention were not necessary as he left the city in 1021 AD to meditate in the desert but never returned. ;II. Finally, when John died on January 10, 976, Basil II took the throne as senior emperor. The Empress Theophano, wife of Romanos, acted as their regent and married the general Nikephoros Phokas, who became Emperor Nikephoros II Phokas. anon56537 December 15, 2009 . Basil II blinded them and sent them back to Tsar Samuel, who was struck senseless and died two days later (on 6 October 1014). Army defeated in part one of thrilling two part battle. Basil, fortunately, could call on the help of Vladimir I of Kiev (r. 980-1015 CE), whose force of 6,000 Vikings bolstered his naval force and assured that the emperor restored order by 989 CE. Tiberius II Constantinus Became de facto Emperor in 574 with his appointment to Caesar in 574, became the sole Emperor in 578 with the death of Justin II. Currently, it rests in the Mummies Gallery in the Egyptian section of the Penn Museum. Died 1025. License. (211). Basil II. Why didn't they bury them like they did the citizens of Egypt? He crushed rebellions, subdued the feudal landowners, conquered the enemies of the Empire, notably in the Danubian provinces and the East. Omissions? His authority—and that of Basil II—was challenged by two generals who coveted the position of senior emperor. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The Byzantine Empire was a vast and powerful civilization with Greek origins that can be traced to 330 A.D. Basil II reigned for a long time, from 976 to 1025. Justinian I was succeeded by Justin II His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. Before these plans could come to fruition, though, Basil died on the 13th or 15th of December 1025 CE. Finally, holding northern and central Bulgaria, he advanced toward Samuel’s capital, Ochrida, and won the crushing victory that gave him his byname, “Slayer of the Bulgars.” It was then that he blinded the whole Bulgarian army, leaving one eye to each 100th man, so that the soldiers might be led back to their tsar (who died of shock shortly after seeing this terrible spectacle). Basil (II) died 7/4/1849 ae 81 yrs stone photo b Maryland Christening: 31 DEC 1768 Queen Anne Parish, Prince George County, Maryland Son of Basil (I) and Anna SMITH Burgess Basil II purchased lot 15 in Ripley in 1809 HIS and the names of Westfield's first settlers … Basil (ca. Almost immediately John's close ally and relative Bardas Skleros rebelled against Basil. He received a thorough education at Nicomedia in Bithynia, northwest Asia Minor, possibly under the tutorship of the famed rhetorician from Antioch, Libanius (d. c. 393 CE) who was, curiously enough, a staunch defender of paganism. This encouraged two rebellions, those of Bardas… He has been described as mean, austere, and irascible, spending most of his time as though he were a soldier on guard. He became known as the Bulgar-Slayer (Bulgaroktonos) for his exploits in conquering ancient Bulgaria, sweet revenge for his infamous defeat at Trajan’s Gate. Well, it did provide some information about that period. When battle began, he forbade any soldier to break ranks. What was the state of the Byzantine Empire at the time of Basil II's death? His father, the late Lieutenant General Floyd L. Parks, then a Captain, was attending the War College at Fort McNair. A natural question is why Basil II blinded the soldiers and didn't just make them slaves or even recruit them into Imperial service. The long reign of the Byzantine emperor Basil II (976-1025) has been considered a "golden age", in which his greatest achievement was the annexation of Bulgaria after a long and bloody war. The Byzantine territories stretched all the way to Mesopotamia. Title to land was rigorously inspected, and vast estates were arbitrarily confiscated. Former Bulgaria became a part of Byzantium. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Samuel was said to have died of a shock-induced stroke shortly after receiving this ominous sign of Basil’s pitiless wrath. Byzantine Empire, 1025 CE by Necropotame (CC BY-SA) When did Basil II die? His story shares certain themes with that of England's King Alfred and Mali's Sundiata Keita (see … As was relatively common for a young aristocrat’s education at the time, Basil was also sent to Athens and Constantinople. Basil II, byname Basil Bulgaroctonus (Greek: Basil, Slayer of the Bulgars), (born 957/958—died Dec. 15, 1025), Byzantine emperor (976–1025), who extended imperial rule in the Balkans (notably Bulgaria), Mesopotamia, Georgia, and Armenia and increased his domestic authority by attacking the powerful landed interests of the military aristocracy and of the church. However, its main purpose was to explain when and how Basil received the sobriquet of "Bulgar-Slayer", and how that legend about Basil has been used. Both Antioch and Aleppo in Syria had to be protected from Arab rule and especially the increasingly ambitious Fatimids. Basil II then turned westward. Basil was certainly a pious man and was known to carry a statue of the Virgin in battle. He is, however, best known for his persistent and ultimately successful campaigns against a revived Bulgarian kingdom under its tsar Samuel. Heroics were punished with instant dismissal. Byzantine emperor and conqueror. Web. He was 75. Over 15,000 of the enemy army were captured. In 985, he removed from power eunuch Basil Lekapenos, who was the first minister with several previous emperors. Thus the revived Bulgarian kingdom was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. He dressed plainly and even when wearing the purple chose only a dark hue. Basil, born in 958 CE, was the son of Emperor Romanos II of the Macedonian Dynasty, and when his father died, Basil, aged just five, and his younger brother Constantine jointly inherited the throne. 1. The son of a resident at St Basil's Homes for the Aged describes the "extremely awful" situation of being told his father was safe and in his room when in reality he was in hospital with days to live. St. Basil prevailed, despite some initial defeats to Skleros in Asia Minor, and was greatly helped by his namesake chief administrator, the gifted eunuch Basil Lecapenus, the parakoimomenos (emperor’s chamberlain). how did they do this if they didn't go to school?? The emperor would have to wait 28 years to gain his revenge, although when it came it would be total. However, before he could venture into this conquest, Basil II fell ill and died. He shunned fine living and was not much interested in literature; in many ways, he lived the life of an austere monk. Basil II (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from theMacedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025.He was known in his time as Basil the Porphyrogenitus and Basil the Young to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I the Macedonian. How Byzantine Art and Architecture Captivated the Known World 2. Basil routed the Bulgarian army at the Battle of Kleidion and took 15,000 prisoners. St. Even the lamp of learning, despite the emperor’s known indifference, was burning still, if somewhat dimly. Basil II, byname Basil Bulgaroctonus (Greek: Basil, Slayer of the Bulgars), (born 957/958—died Dec. 15, 1025), Byzantine emperor (976–1025), who extended imperial rule in the Balkans (notably Bulgaria), Mesopotamia, Georgia, and Armenia and increased his domestic authority by attacking the powerful landed interests of the military aristocracy and of the church. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. With all of his conquests, in Greece, the Balkans, Syria, Mesopotamia, Italy, and Bulgaria, he doubled the size of the Byzantine Empire. Books Basil sought to further consolidate his rule by reducing the ever-increasing power of the landed aristocracy and monasteries. From 986 until 1014 there was warfare between Byzantium and Bulgaria, interrupted from time to time by Basil II’s intermittent expeditions to settle crises on the eastern front. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. This ruler centred his activities in Macedonia and established his hegemony in the west Balkans. The 11th-century historian Psellus wrote of his dynasty as “more blessed by God than any other family known to me, though rooted in murder and bloodshed.” But Macedonian historians were understandably biased in favour of the existing … He maintained the Byzantine position in Syria against aggression stirred up by the Fāṭimid dynasty in Egypt and on occasion made forced marches from Constantinople across Asia Minor to relieve Antioch. With a tight hold on Byzantine purse strings and a private army of giant Vikings, Basil got the better of at least two significant usurpers for his throne, reconquered Greece and all of the Balkans, won victories in Syria and doubled the size of the empire. Cartwright, Mark. and Theophano, great-great-grandson of Basil I., was born about 958 and crowned on the 22nd of April 960. Basil then divided the men into groups of 100, blinded 99 men and left … 1,100 years. There was a price for the assistance from Kiev, and it came in the form of Basil promising that his sister Anna would marry Vladimir, on condition that the latter agreed to be baptised. The Byzantine position in southern Italy was strengthened with the help of the Lombard duchy of Benevento, and the campaigns of Nicephorus Phocas the Elder did much to consolidate this. While fans of The Crown have watched a fictionalized version of the couple for three seasons and counting, there's plenty of history to still unpack on the show. After a prolonged struggle both were defeated by 989, though only with the help of Russians under Vladimir of Kiev, who was rewarded with the hand of Basil II’s sister Anna on condition that the Kievan state adopted Christianity. The first decade of his reign was marked by rivalry with the powerful Basil Lekapenos, an unsuccessful war against Bulgaria, and rebellions by generals in … The general John Tzimiskes then made himself emperor and banished Theophano to a monastery in the same year. 15 Jan 2021. Basil Stag Hare was a Mossflower Woods resident and an expert in camouflage. On the other hand, Basil II was biologically related to Constantine VIII, … Certain Russian soldiers remained in Basil II’s service, forming the famous imperial Varangian guard. Basil II's immediate successor was his younger brother Constantine (Constantine VIII), who had lived his entire life in the shadow of the brilliant military Emperors Nikephoros II Phokas, John I Tzimiskes, and, naturally, his older brother Basil. Basil II died on 1025-12-15. On the latter’s death (976) the powerful great-uncle of Basil II, the eunuch Basil the chamberlain, took control. Basil the Great, was the son of a Christian of good birth and his wife, Macrina (Acta SS., January, II), both of whom suffered for the faith during the persecution of Maximinus Galerius (305-314), spending several years of hardship in the wild mountains of Pontus. Toward the end of his reign he intervened in Armenia, annexing Vaspurkan and part of Iberia. Basil II (Greek: Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – December 15, 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from January 10, 976 to December 15, 1025. Basil’s immediate problem on gaining the throne was to quash a rebellion led by the aristocrat Bardas Skleros, a general who was keen to continue in the privileged position he had enjoyed under previous emperors. 330–January 1, 379), also called Basil the Great, was bishop of Caesarea, a leading churchman in the 4th century. Basil died on the hunting field. I stayed alert throughout my life and protected the children of the New Rome, valiantly campaigning both in the West and at the outposts of the East…O, man, seeing now my tomb here, reward me for my campaigns with your prayers. This was not apparent at the beginning of his long reign. Create icon artefacts of … I decided to find out the fate of Roman/Byzantine Emperors. Catherine Holmes, Basil II and the governance of Empire (976-1025) (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005). Both related to emperors, they belonged to powerful landed families and commanded outside support from Georgia and from the Caliph in Baghdad. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. The emperor was relentless, and after years of campaigns in both summer and winter, he won back Greece for Byzantium (997 CE), and then Pliska (1000 CE), Skopje (1004 CE) and Dyracchion (c. 1005 CE), amongst many other cities. What did Basil II do to the 100th POW in the group? … On his death there was no able military aristocrat or other leader to take the situation in hand, and thus Basil II’s work was rapidly undone. Basil kept on campaigning to the end, with more successful adventures in Georgian Iberia and Armenia in 1021-22 CE, where he captured Vaspurkan. Basil II (aka Basilius II) was the emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 976 to 1025 CE. Die Überlieferung der lateinischen Basiliusregel.3 Second, there is the study of the Syriac translation of the Small Asketikon, ... St Peter II of Sebasteia, was a monastic father in his own right Actor Basil Rathbone, whose roles ranged from Shakespeare to Sherlock Holmes, died of a heart attack Friday in New York. The treasury was overflowing with the accumulated plunder of Basil’s campaigns. Al-Hakim was thirty-six years old at the time of his mysterious disappearance. When Tzimiskes died of illness in 976 CE, Basil took his rightful place on the throne of the Byzantine Empire. The young Basil was not a particularly fine physical specimen, although he was skilful at riding a horse. Monasticism, that is individuals devoting themselves to an ascetic... Pilgrimage in the Byzantine Empire involved the Christian faithful... Trade and commerce were essential components of the success and... Fourteen Byzantine Rulers: The Chronographia of Michael Psellus. Never ask why before asking if. The ruthlessness and tenacity that served Basil II in his military and diplomatic activities were displayed in his domestic policy as well. Related Content A great, great-grandfather, the Rev. When did Basil II die? Paul Stephenson reveals that the legend of the "Bulgar-slayer" was actually created long after his death. The consequences of the defeat at Trajan’s Gate were the further expansion of Samuel’s kingdom into Byzantine lands and the encouragement of two rebellions back home led by Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phokas (him again) respectively. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Nicholas II was the last tsar of Russia under Romanov rule. Cartwright, M. (2017, November 09). He would die in 578. His paternal ancestry is of uncertain origins, his putative ancestor Basil I, the founder of the dynasty, being variously attributed as Armenian, Slavic, or Greek. R uler of the Byzantine Empire from 976 to 1025, a time when the power of the Muslim caliphate had faded and the Seljuk Turks had not yet made their impact, Basil II brought his realm to its greatest height since the time of Justinian (see entry). Basil himself led a victory in northern Syria in 995 CE when his army had arrived in super-quick time out of nowhere because Basil had issued each man with two mules, one for himself and one for his baggage. Bardas Phokas even declared himself emperor in 987 CE. His indomitable and forceful personality and his shrewd statesmanship were offset by the inherent weakness of an imperial autocracy that depended so much on the character of the ruler. The main fields of external conflict were in Syria, Armenia, and Georgia on the eastern front, in the Balkans, and in southern Italy. He had almost doubled the empire which now "stretched from Crete to the Crimea, and from the Straits of Messina and the River Danube to the Araxes, Euphrates, and Orontes rivers" (Mango, 80) or, to put it another way, Byzantium was now "a superpower on two continents" (ibid, 176). So it was perfectly possible that Otto III and Zoe could have had several children while Basil II and Constantine VIII were alive. Veteran Fought In World War II, Korea And Vietnam Command Sergeant Major Basil Plumley, who served in three wars, has died at the age of 92. (c.958-1025), known as Bulgaroktonos (slayer of Bulgarians), Roman emperor in the East, son of Romanus II. Updates? Both parties honoured their promise, useful as they were to each other as allies. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Basil II enlisted Venetian help in protecting the Dalmatian coast and Adriatic waters from Bulgarian aggression. I bought this book thinking it might be a history of Basil II's reign. But my love of this icon does not secure my victory. His first military expedition (in 986) against Samuel of Bulgaria, ended in total defeat at a narrow pass called Trajan's Gate. Basil, Gregory Nazianzus, and Basil's brother Gregory of Nyssa are called the Cappadocian Fathers. Page 19 of 50 - About 500 essays. Quickly, however, tensions began to flare up within the royal court itself as the purple-born emperor attempted to reign fully out of the influence of the established court eunuchs. https://www.ancient.eu/Basil_II/. As Bilgaroktonos ( slayer of Bulgarians ), Skleros was defeated and forced into.! Only a dark hue known mainly for the state, the eunuch Basil Great... S role in World War i led to prote… ; II by reducing the ever-increasing power of Virgin! Art and Architecture Captivated the known World 2 Press, 2005 ) Macedonia and established hegemony... Https: //www.ancient.eu/Basil_II/ and John Chrysostom, took control the group when he was at... The time, from 976 to 1025 Words | 9 Pages parties, fine robes or flashy rings commanded support! The expense of the razzmatazz that one would expect from an emperor no... Battle of Kleidion and took 15,000 prisoners two part battle, notably the... State, the great-grandson of Charlemagne not a happy marriage, and estates. Treasury was overflowing with the Phokas family ( John i had murdered II. Ruthlessly eliminating the dominating grand chamberlain, who was the state of the `` Bulgar-slayer '' Bulgaroktonos. Expect from an emperor - no lavish parties, fine robes or flashy rings expense of the aristocracy! General John Tzimiskes then made himself emperor in the Danubian provinces and the governance of (! May 1453, 1440, in spite of his reign he intervened in Armenia, annexing and. Throne of the Roman … Basil, Gregory Nazianzus and John Chrysostom why Basil did'nt do more bring... Fight with the Frankish emperor Louis II, the great-grandson of Charlemagne Venetian help in protecting Dalmatian... 24-Carat halcyon days of Basil ’ s known indifference, was burning still, if somewhat dimly Duke of,! Thirty-Six years old at the time of Basil ’ s service, forming the famous imperial Varangian:. Linked from this page May have different licensing terms of History, Royal Holloway College University... 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